A total of 2,260 residents of your own area was in fact randomly picked away from Lebanon’s areas within the a proportionate speed

Research Construction and you can Users

It cross-sectional investigation is actually conducted ranging from . Areas was split up into subdistricts, which are divided in to towns. We chosen 2 villages for every single subdistrict away from a listing provided with the brand new Main Agencies out of Analytics inside Lebanon. New survey try delivered randomly to help you home considering a haphazard-sampling approach. 32 People who accessible to participate in the analysis had been desired accomplish the latest questionnaire via a face-to-face interviews. All someone old > 18 ages was basically entitled to engage. Individuals with intellectual disability and those who refused to complete the questionnaire was omitted. Study range is actually did by the investigation-independent personnel.

Limited Sample Size Computation

Based on the formula \[n = <(Z_<1-?/dos>)^2 p(1-p) \over d^2>\] wherein n = size of the sample, P = expected proportion, d = the desired margin of error, and Z1??/2 = 1.96 for ? = 5%, a minimal sample of 1,152 participants was needed based on a P = 50% expected frequency of nomophobia in the absence of similar studies, a d = 5% risk of error, and a design effect of 3.


This new questionnaire used for the interviews was a student in Arabic, the newest local language regarding Lebanon. The initial the main survey reviewed the brand new sociodemographic attributes of the players (many years, quantity of youngsters, gender, training level, socioeconomic height, and you will relationship status). Puffing is actually analyzed by answering “yes” into concern, “Are you presently a recent smoker?” for the requirements it integrated puffing no less than 1 waterpipe otherwise tobacco prior to now thirty days. Questions regarding the sort of tobacco cigarette smoked (smokes, waterpipe), exactly how many cigarettes smoked daily, while the quantity of waterpipes used per week had been also requested. Users which don’t meet step one ones dos criteria have been thought nonsmokers. The next a portion of the survey contained the following methods.

Nomophobia Survey

This new Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) is actually a great 20-goods scale 21 which is confirmed for the Lebanon. 33 Items are scored according to a good seven-part Likert size, that have step 1 = don’t concur after all and eight = firmly concur. Large scores imply higher nomophobia. The fresh new Cronbach ? for this measure is advanced (? = 0.948). This new NMP-Q doesn’t have good cutoff area. The entire rating yielded 4 kinds of users that had zero nomophobia (scores of 20), lighter nomophobia (score anywhere between 21 and you may 59), modest nomophobia (scores ranging from 60 and you may 99), and you can major nomophobia (score ranging from one hundred and you can 140).

Identity Catalog for DSM-5

The brand new mature brand of the fresh new Personality Inventory having DSM-5 brief form are verified in the Arabic 34 and has 25 products that measure the 5 personality attribute domains: negative affect (involves the contact with bad thinking; activities 8, nine, 10, eleven, 15), withdrawal (your state off anxiety, mistrust; facts 4, 13, fourteen, 16, 18), antagonism (personal withdrawal, grandiosity; circumstances 17, 19, 20, twenty two, 25), disinhibition (becoming natural, irresponsible, careless; situations 1, dos, step 3, 5, 6), and psychoticism (which have odd practices and you will perceptual dilemmas; activities 7, several, 21, 23, 24). So it unit is used having grownups aged ? 18 decades. The fresh new answers are priced between extremely completely wrong (size = 0) to help you really best (level = 3). thirty five Large ratings mean higher breakdown regarding the certain identification characteristic domain name. This new Cronbach ? for this size was higher level (? = 0.943).

NEO Four-Grounds Catalog

The brand new NEO Five-Grounds List (NEO-FFI) are good 60-item survey one to analyzes all the 5 very first identity dimensions (twelve questions for every single domain): neuroticism, extraversion, transparency to tackle, agreeableness, and you may conscientiousness. thirty six The new Arabic variety of the newest NEO-FFI was applied. 37 Items are answered with the an effective 5-section Likert scale away from highly differ to help you firmly concur. For each and every factors get try calculated because of the summing brand new remedies for all the questions of part. The newest Cronbach ? because of it measure is actually expert (? = 0.963) once the try that towards more subscales: neuroticism (? = 0.895), extraversion (? = 0.707), openness to try out (? = 0.923), agreeableness (? = 0.920), and you will conscientiousness (? = 0.931). Large scores indicate a healthier identification trait.